pengertian gerund and infinitive

Pengertian Gerund

Gerund adalah bentuk kata kerja -ing  ketika digunakan sebagai kata benda .

a) sebagai sejenis kata benda.

                                                    b) sebagai bagian kata kerja.

a) sebagai sejenis kata benda.

  • Gerund sebagai subjek

Learning foreign languages is hard work

Swimming is hobby

 

  • Gerund sebagai objek

Some people don’t like flying

He enjoys reading novel

I finish writing letter

 

  • Gerund sebagai propositional phrase

He is good at singing

Ths land is good for farming

 

  • Gerund sebagai complement

My father’s favourite sport is playing football

Her hobby is telling story

 

  • Gerund sebagai noun modifier

The waiting room is very large

The reading books are on the table

 

  • Gerund sebagai larangan

No smoking,

No parking,

No swimming.

 

b) sebagai bagian kata kerja.

Karena Gerund adalah bagian kata kerja, ia dapat menggunakan objek di belakangnya. Misalnya :

e) Objek langsung (dengan transitif) :

  • · He is clever at teaching mathematics = Ia pandai dalam mengajarkan matematika.

f) Objek Tak Langsung (dengan transitif)

  • · He is clever at teaching us mathematics = Ia pandai dalam mengajarkan matematika kepada kami.

g) Objek yang tetap dipertahankan dalam kalimat pasif (Retained object)

  • · She is pleased at being taught mathematics = Ia senang sekali terhadap matematika yang diajarkan kepadanya.

h) Objek yang artinya mirip dengan kata kerja itu sendiri = cognate object (dengan intransitif)

  • · She is proud of having sung a fine song = Ia bangga akan nyanyian merdu yang telah ia nyanyikan.

i) Objek refleksif (dengan intransitif)

  • · She is in the habit of oversleeping herself = Kebiasaannya sendiri bangun kesiangan (tidur terlalu lama)

 

The Infinitive with to

after: the first Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship.
the last Peter was the last to watch the film.
the next He is the next to get his passport.

 

after: adjectives I’m happy to be here.
It’s better not to smoke.

 

after: certain verbs
(agree, choose, forget, hope, learn, promise, regret, want, …)
I learn to drive a car.

 

after: question words I don’t know what to say.
Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop?

 

after: want/would like I want you to help me.

 

verb + object + to-infinitive I helped my dad to clean the car.

The Infinitive without to

after auxiliaries/modals

can He can run very fast.
could As a boy he could run very fast.
may I may fly to Africa this summer.
might I might fly to Africa this summer.
must I must go now.
mustn’t You mustn’t smoke here.
needn’t You needn’t go.
shall We shall sing a song.
should We should sing a song.
will She will cook a meal for his birthday.
would She would cook a meal for his birthday.

after to do

do I don’t know.

after the following expressions:

had better You had better clean up your room.
would rather Susan would rather study for her exam tomorrow.
would sooner I would sooner read a book than watch this film.
why not Why not ask your neighbour for help?
why should we Why should we go by car?
why should we not Why should we not go by car?

after verbs of perception + object (action has finished):

feel She feels the rain fall on her face.
hear I heard Peter sing a song.
notice Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree.
see They saw him climb up the roof.
watch He watched the thieves steal a car.

after let + object:

let Sandy let her child go out alone.
Mother let her daughter decide on her own.
let’s Let’s go for a walk through the park.

after make + object:

make She made Peggy and Samantha clean the room

 

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